) Hayer testified that Butler and Johnson were not present and were not involved in the assassination, but he declined to name the men who had joined him in the shooting. All three men were convicted. Butler, now known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985. He became the head of the Nation of Islam’s Harlem mosque in New York in 1998. Farrakhan weathered the storm of Malcolm X’s assassination and managed to create a powerful base within the Nation, ascending to the position of national spokesman in 1967.
7 in New York City just two years after his 1952 release from prison, Malcolm X was wildly popular, and his years as a prominent member of NOI (1952-64) saw membership skyrocket. But the Nation’s vituperative language and its advocacy of self-defense in place of nonviolence alienated it from mainstream civil rights groups. By 1959, Martin Luther King was warning of “a hate group arising in our midst that would preach the doctrine of black supremacy.
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In another, Malcolm X, on departing from NOI in 1964, spoke of an Atlanta meeting (later corroborated by FBI records) between NOI and the Klan in an attempt to establish mutual working conditions. In more recent years, a yearning for racial separation has brought NOI other strange bedfellows. During the Jesse Jackson campaign, NOI was discovered by white “Third Positionists” (who espouse, among other things, radical racial separatism) in the extreme-right British National Front, some of whom developed friendly relationships with NOI officials in the late 1980s before suffering a backlash from the rank and file who could not understand their leadership’s cozy ties to American “n*****s. ” Similarly, American neo-Nazi and White Aryan Resistance founder Tom Metzger has praised NOI’s antisemitic rhetoric and has even donated a symbolic amount of money to the Nation. During the mid-1990s, Farrakhan tried to moderate his message, reaching out to the Jewish community groups and more mainstream black organizations.
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” All of this has helped make Farrakhan attractive to certain white supremacist groups who agree that the races must be separated. In one early instance, American Nazi Party boss George Lincoln Rockwell appeared at NOI’s 1962 Saviours’ Day Convention, christening Elijah Muhammad the Hitler of blacks.
One of the most baseless attacks came in the form of a 1991 “study” ordered up by Farrakhan and written by NOIs “Historical Research Department. ” Titled The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, the book uses isolated examples of Jewish merchants’ involvement in the purchase and ownership of slaves to place the onus of the slavery industry squarely on Jewish shoulders – a historical falsehood. The group has established what they call “The Nation of Islam Research Group, ” which serves as a platform that ties together articles on current topics with an online store that sells NOI books.
” Fard and his disciple preached of a coming apocalyptic overthrow of white domination, insisting that the dominion of evil was to end with God’s appearance on earth in the person of Fard. Following this, NOI predicts an epic struggle in which the Nation of Islam will play a key role in preparing and educating the Original People, who ruled the earth in peace and prosperity until Yacub’s “blue-eyed devils” came along to gum things up. The Nation of Islam teaches that intermarriage or race mixing should be prohibited. This is point 10 of the official platform, “What the Muslims Want, ” published in 1965. Fard’s FBI file concludes he was born in New Zealand on February 26, 1891, to a British father and Polynesian mother. The California Bureau of Identification and Investigation had Fard listed as Wallace Ford.
But any such effort was thwarted by his own continued antisemitic remarks and those of his officers. In 1993, for instance, an attempt at reconciliation with the Congressional Black Caucus failed after the Anti-Defamation League published an article detailing a wildly incendiary speech by top NOI official Khalid Muhammad at New Jersey’s Kean College in November of that year in which he violently bashed Jews, Catholics, LGBT people and whites. In 2000, at the height of Farrakhan’s battle with prostate cancer, he announced that he would be working together with Wallace Deen Muhammad.
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Hitler was a very great man. He wasn’t a great man for me as a black person, but he was a great German. Now, I’m not proud of Hitler’s evils against Jewish people, but that’s a matter of record. He raised Germany up from nothing. Well, in a sense you could say there’s a similarity in that we are raising our people up from nothing. ” – Louis Farrakhan, radio interview, March 11, 1984 “Integration is against the Desire and Will of God Who Wants and must Do that which is written He Will Come and Do: Restore the earth to its rightful owner (Black Man). ” – Elijah Muhammad, “Our Saviour Has Arrived, ” 1974 Background For what would become one of the largest and best-organized groups in the history of black America, the Nation of Islam (NOI) had a relatively obscure beginning.
He faced a firestorm after Malcolm X’s 1965 assassination, for which many blamed NOI. Talmadge Hayer, an NOI member, was arrested on the scene. Eyewitnesses identified two more suspects, Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson, also members of NOI. All three were charged in the case. At first Hayer denied involvement, but during the trial he confessed to having fired shots at Malcolm X. (In the months before he was murdered, meanwhile, Malcolm X had a complete change of heart, denouncing the “sickness and madness” of the NOI’s racism and turning to Sunni Islam.
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